Darshanas and their Nirakaranam(refutation) by Vedaanta


Posted by: “kalyani” kalyani_srinilayam@yahoo.co.in   kalyani_srinilayam

Wed Mar 14, 2012 1:53 am (PDT)

Darshanas are many but the major ones are :

1. Adwaitam – The world is an illusory super-imposition on Eshwara.

2. Nayaya and 3. Vaisesika – The material cause of this world is the Paramaanus or atoms of elements earth, water etc.,
(Just as clay and ) not Eswara (is the material cause of pot) which is seen (invariably) as consisting of clay, in the same way, it is the atoms combined (that form) the material cause of the world ( not Eswara)
A pot inheres in the cause , the clay, from which it is made to manifest.
Potters wheel and stick are non-inherent causes and
potter himself plays the third role as nimmita karana
Therefore, these schools consider Eswara has very minor role in Creation; The material cause is always reflected in its effects. Since Eswara is not reflected in this world , tehrefore, He is not the material cause.

Refutation (by Adwaitam) In all effects starting from the sprout , right up to the fruit-“Existence” has been accepted. wherefrom have the atomic particles come and got connected with the seeds of a Banyan tree?

Clay is perceptible in – the lump, the pot and the broken shreds of pot; since ” Existence” ( satta or astitva) is invariably present and perceptible in all objects of the world, that itself is the material cause.
If paramaanus or atoms are the materail cause of this world, they should have been perceived in all effects- from seed up to fruit; but they are not.How could these atomic particles come and enter the seed? which is the starting of our series of cause and effects.
Since Paramanus are invisible world should have been invisible. Therefore Paramaanus are not the material cause, but Brahman or Eswara.

4. Sankhya – worst still ; atleast Nayaya Vaisesika schools accepted Eswara at least as Nimmitta Kaarana , but Sankhya completly dispensed with Him!
Three Gunas Satwam, rajas and Tamas, called Pradhana, are the causes of Creation, sustenance and destruction of the world.

It is only Conscious entity that can set forth the process of creation. W/o a Potter, the pot can never be produced. Hence it is only Eswara that can set forth the creative process of the world. The atomic particles of Vaisesikas and the three Gunas of Sankhyas which are accepted as matrix of creation , are both without consciousness and hence incapable of creation.
For sankhyas giving e.g. of milk turing into curd by itself w/o conscious entity- the answer is – Kriya Sakthi of Eswara in the form of Time ,which is always associated with Esawara, that is responsible for transformation. ( while the Sveswara school of Sankhyas accept Eswara also as a fundamental truth)

5. Carvakas – ( caru Vaak = sweet talk) – are atheists accept only Pratyaksha or direct perception ( as the means of Knowledge)
6. The Buddhists ( and Kanadas or Vaisesikas) accept in addition to Pramaana, anumaana or inference. (The sankhyas accept in addition to the above sabda or scriptural testimony.)
7. Puranikaas – who believe in ancient legends and lores , handed down by oral tradition.
8. Aitihyaas – e.g. people may believe that a banyan tree near the burial ground is haunted by an evil spirit, if that knowledge is handed down by tradition.

all thesealternative views or principles existed , before creation, in the Aatman, as the sprout in the seed. They were displayed by the power of Maya comprising Iccha, Janaana and Kriya ( of Eswara). ( it is Eswara Himself promulgatedthose views assuming the form of rishis.
Because all activities are preceded by Iccha, janan and Kriya, tehrefore it has been settled that all living beings are Eswaras.
The various schools of thoughts are Vikalpaas or mere conjectures.
The world was non-different from Eswara before creation (upanishad vakhyam)
Even after the creation has come into existence, it continues to be non-different from Eswara. All living beings exhibit the traits of Iccha, Jnaana and Kriya before they perform any act. and these three are really traits of Eswara. Hence all the beings are aspects of Eswara.
Again, these traits have been manifested because of Eswara’s association with Maya. Hence the world which is a creation of these three traits is also Maya.

Eswara is eternal, does not become a ” doer” just by the activity; noe he does become a “knower’ by the activity of the means of knowledge. He is verily self-resplendent.
Then how does Eswara exercise his Janaa and Kriya sakti ? by His mere presence, just like a magnet or king, whose presence is enough to do their duties.

Therefore, this creation of the world by Eswara is only a phenomenon of Maya. The tradition of bondage, teaching concerning liberation etc., is also by Maya.

The above is dealt in length in Maansollasa by sri Sureswaracarya as a commentary on his Guru Sri Adi Sankara Baghawadpada’s Dakshinamurty stotram (10 verses and this explanation is for verse 2) and the commentary by swami Harshaananda.

K. Vaidyanathan

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