Pana Sankranti (Hindi: पणा संक्रांति) or Maha Vishuva Sankranti also known as Mesha Sankranti and Pana Sankranti, is celebrated as the Oriya New Year.this Odisha observes 1420 sala according to Jagannath temple. Jagannath temple has prepared new calender on the name of temple.
The day marks the beginning of the New Year in the traditional Hindu Solar Calendar. On this day the sun enters the sidereal Aries or Mesha Rashi. It generally falls on 14/15 April. The spring season is at its zenith during this period, and the summer is approaching. The date is calculated as per Sidereal astrology.
Maha Vishuva Sankranti is similar to the New Year festivals observed elsewhere in India such as Baisakhi (Punjab), Bihu (Assam), Juir Sheetal (Mithila), Naba Barsha (Bengal), Bisu Parba (Tulu Nadu region in Karnataka), Vishu (Kerala), and Puthandu (Tamil Nadu).
There are specific reasons as to why the Vishuva Sankranti is considered as the first day of the solar year. On only two occasions around year, Mesha Sankramana and Tula Sankramana, the Sun fully rests on the equator. On these two dates, the length of days and nights are equal. But in case of a sidereal zodiac, as used in Indian solar calendars, it has no connection with the equinoxes. Hence, the length of the Indian solar calendars is longer than the actual tropical solar year. The oriya solar month of Mesha starts from this day.
Difference from lunar calendar
Although people of Odisha calculate the month from the next day of Purnima to Purnima, as per the North Indian Purnimanta system, the yearly cycle of the moon is less than 365 days of earth’s rotation, and some years also contain Adhika Maasa. Therefore, the new year is calculated from the day of Mesha Sankramana to fix a particular day. The Oriya New Year is calculated from the day of Sankramana, whereas the neighbouring state of Bengal celebrates Pohela Boishakh on the next day of Sankramana.
basundhara theki(a small pot) in Maha Vishuva SankrantiOn this particular day, a small pot filled with pana or a sweet drink of Mishri and water is hung on a basil (Tulsi) plant. There is a hole at the bottom of this pot which allows the water to fall from the pot, representing rain. The flour of horse gram chhatua, along with banana and curd, is consumed by the people of Odisha after offering it to the Tulsi plant. Special offerings are made to Shalagram, Shivalinga, Hanuman, and other deities. The devi temples of Cuttack Chandi, Biraja, Samaleswari temple and Sarala become crowded, which is called Jhaamu Yatra. In Northern Odisha it is called Chadak Parva. In Southern Odisha the day is celebrated as the end of month-long Danda nata, and the final ceremony is known as Meru Yatra. People all over the state worship Hanuman on this day and celebrate it as his birthday. People enjoy chhatua and Bel Pana with great pleasure.
Source – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia